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You can generate a few different kinds of matrices in latex.

a_{11} &  0  & \ldots & a_{1n}\\
0  &  a_{22} & \ldots & a_{2n}\\
\vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots\\
0  &   0       &\ldots & a_{nn}


Note that the individual entries are separated by &, each matrix row ends with a \\, (carriage return) and that,

\ldots elliptical dots tex2html_wrap_inline3277
\vdots vertical dots tex2html_wrap_inline3279
\ddots diagonal dots tex2html_wrap_inline3281

are each considered as a matrix entry.

To get vertical lines or parentheses or brackets, etc. around the entries you can use the vmatrix, pmatrix, or bmatrix environments.

See the latex User's Guide by Lamport for more details.

Lastly, if you want a matrix with notation on the borders, the latex\ construct

$$\bordermatrix{\text{corner}&c_1&c_2&\ldots &c_n\cr
                r_1&a_{11} &  0  & \ldots & a_{1n}\cr
                r_2& 0  &  a_{22} & \ldots & a_{2n}\cr
                r_3& \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots\cr
                r_4& 0  &   0       &\ldots & a_{nn}}$$


Note that the entry ``corner'' appears in the corner, so if you don't want anything there you need to put a blank there explicitly.

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